By Crina Anastasescu, Susana Mihaiu, Silviu Preda, Maria Zaharescu
This e-book offers rainy chemical sol-gel and hydrothermal equipment for 1D oxide nanostructure instruction. those tools signify an enticing path to multifunctional nanomaterials synthesis, as they're flexible, reasonably cheap and, therefore, applicable for acquiring a variety of oxide fabrics with adapted morphology and homes. 3 particular oxides (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO) are mentioned intimately with a view to illustrate the main of the sol-gel and hydrothermal instruction of 1D oxide nanostructures. different oxides synthesized through this technique also are in brief provided.
Throughout the publication, the correlation among the tubular constitution and the physico-chemical homes of those fabrics is highlighted. 1D oxide nanostructures show fascinating optical and electric houses, as a result of their restricted morphology. additionally, a well-defined geometry will be linked to chemically lively species. for instance, the natural SiO2 nanotubes offered a mild photocatalytic job, whereas the Pt-doped SiO2 tubular fabrics act as microreactors in catalytic reactions. in relation to titania and titanate nanotubes, huge particular floor sector and pore quantity, ion-exchange skill, more suitable mild absorption, and quick electron-transport potential have attracted major study curiosity. The chemical and actual adjustments (microwave assisted hydrothermal equipment) mentioned right here enhance the formation kinetics of the nanotubes. The ZnO nanorods/tubes have been ready as random debris or as huge components of small, orientated 1D ZnO nanostructures on quite a few substrates. within the latter case a sol-gel layer is deposited at the substrate ahead of the hydrothermal education. utilizing acceptable dopants, coatings of ZnO nanorods with managed electric habit should be obtained.
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Extra info for 1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods
With increasing of reaction time, the inner core continuously reacts with OH-, thus resulting in hollow tubular structures [185–187]. 2 ZnO Nanorods/Nanotubes 51 Fig. 16 SEM image of nanorods and their growth according to the proposed mechanism (Unpublished results) Fig. 2 ZnO Nanorods Deposited as Films As presented above, ZnO nanorods and nanotubes could be easily prepared by hydrothermal method. However, for most important applications, ZnO nanorods are used as vertically aligned arrays deposited on different substrates.
In the case of hydrothermal treatment (Fig. 14c) of the same solution, welldeveloped ZnO nanorods were obtained, with hexagonal cross section. 2 ZnO Nanorods/Nanotubes 49 Fig. 05 M with 2:1 molar ratio: (a) by chemical method, maintaining at 85 C reaction temperature for 2 h; (b) the same sample thermally treated at 300 C for 1 h; (c) by hydrothermal treatment for 2 h (Reprinted from  with permission from Revue Roumaine de Chimie) Fig. 15 SEM of powders obtained by hydrothermal method at different reaction times: (a) 2 h; (b) 4 h; (c) cross section of nanorods (Reprinted from  with permission from Revue Roumaine de Chimie) The transformation of the nanorods into nanotubes was realized in the similar experimental conditions, but at different periods of time, at 90 C for (2 h, 4 h, 8 h and 24 h).
The purpose was to establish the conditions to control the parameters in order to achieve well-determined morphologies, structure, and chemical compositions. A common example is the P25 Aeroxide precursor, for which, under very similar hydrothermal and posthydrothermal treatments, different structures and chemical compounds, such as H2Ti4O9ÁH2O  or NaxH2ÀxTi3O7 , were reported. 1 Factors Influencing the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Titanate Nanotubes As mentioned before, the morphology and the characteristics of the titanate nanotubes (TiNTs) highly depend on the hydrothermal conditions, namely, the type of the titanium precursors, the type of the alkaline solutions and concentration, the hydrothermal temperature, and the duration of the treatments, as well as on the post-hydrothermal procedures.
1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods by Crina Anastasescu, Susana Mihaiu, Silviu Preda, Maria Zaharescu