By Martin Breunig, Mulhim Al-Doori, Edgar Butwilowski, Paul V. Kuper, Joachim Benner, Karl Heinz Haefele
Nowadays 3D Geoinformation is required for lots of making plans and research projects. for instance, 3D urban and infrastructure types are paving the way in which for advanced environmental and noise analyzes. 3D geological sub-surface versions are wanted for reservoir exploration within the oil-, gas-, and geothermal undefined. therefore 3D Geoinformation brings jointly researchers and practitioners from diverse fields resembling the geo-sciences, civil engineering, 3D urban modeling, 3D geological and geophysical modeling, and, final yet no longer least, machine technology. the various demanding situations of 3D Geoinformation technology difficulty new methods and the improvement of criteria for above- and under-ground 3D modeling, effective 3D facts administration, visualization and research. eventually, the mixing of other 3D techniques and knowledge types is visible as probably the most vital demanding situations to be solved.
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Additional resources for 3D Geoinformation Science: The Selected Papers of the 3D GeoInfo 2014
The approach is general enough to support 2- and 3-dimensional models, as well as 2-d manifolds in 3-d space. An application example from a tracks planning project is presented. 2 Concept for Modeling N-D Topology Cellular complexes and in particular cellular partitions of d-dimensional manifolds (d-CPM) are able to represent the topology of an extensive class of spatial objects (Mallet 2002). Based in algebraic topology, they provide a more general, less rigid framework than simplicial complexes.
Fig. 12 Multi-representation of a spatial object in the hybrid database. An abstract object references semantic (SM), procedural (PM), explicit (EM) representation and annotation (AM), at different levels of detail. Relationships and constraints describe dependencies between objects. Access is provided by different spatiotemporal and thematic indices On the one hand, a hierarchy of LoDs can be established ad hoc by applying a combination of well deﬁned generalization resp. specialization operations to an explicit spatial model.
The ﬁnal ExtrusionBaseModel is the basis for all further steps. Its geometry is stored with the relating IfcBuilding and IfcBuildingStorey instances of the IFC model as an extra geometric representation. 2 Generation of the LoD1 Model Following the deﬁnition of CityGML (Gröger et al. 2012; Benner et al. 2013a), a LoD1 model is a rough approximation of the original building model represented in one vertical extrusion. In many cases, this is not sufﬁcient to represent the exterior shell of a building.
3D Geoinformation Science: The Selected Papers of the 3D GeoInfo 2014 by Martin Breunig, Mulhim Al-Doori, Edgar Butwilowski, Paul V. Kuper, Joachim Benner, Karl Heinz Haefele